This article is an element of Overlooked, a sequence of obituaries about exceptional individuals whose deaths, starting in 1851, went unreported in The Times.
For over 50 years, Dedé Mirabal carried a crushing weight: All three of her sisters have been murdered in 1960 by henchmen of Rafael Trujillo, the brutal dictator of the Dominican Republic.
As the sole Mirabal sister who survived Trujillo’s regime, Dedé was left to wrestle along with her guilt and discover which means in being alive. She did so by carrying the torch of her sisters’ legacy, as if it have been being borne by “las mariposas” themselves — the code identify, which implies “the butterflies,” that her sisters had given themselves as Trujillo opponents.
Dedé Mirabel wrote of the sisters’ revolutionary acts in her 2009 memoir, “Vivas en Su Jardín” (“Alive in Their Garden”), and preserved their reminiscences in a museum, the Casa Museo Hermanas Mirabal, of their hometown, Conuco, the place she was the director and regularly gave excursions.
There she would inform visiting kids of how her sisters’ deaths finally helped spark a revolution that led to Trujillo’s overthrow in 1961, paving the method for democracy to be restored.
“Why didn’t they kill you?” the kids would ask.
“And I respond,” she wrote in her memoir, “‘I stayed alive to tell their stories.’”
Bélgica Adela Mirabal Reyes was born on March 1, 1925, to Enrique Mirabal Fernández and Mercedes Reyes Camilo. She was the second-oldest of the Mirabal sisters: María Teresa was born in 1935, Patria in 1924 and Minerva in 1926. The household lived on a affluent farm close to the metropolis of Salcedo, the place in addition they operated a espresso mill and a common retailer.
Their mom was loving however strict, obsessive about cleanliness and fond of telling her kids, “God loves poverty but not rashness.” She taught her daughters to stitch. “And getting up without making the bed?” Dedé wrote. “She would not permit it.” Her father, in contrast, would carry her on his shoulders as he walked by way of the fields and infrequently specific his assist for his daughters.
The sisters’ peaceable rural upbringing was interrupted by Trujillo, who was the commander in chief of the Dominican military when he seized energy in a coup in 1930. He took management of the economic system, establishing monopolies in the manufacturing of salt, meat, rice and tobacco to learn himself and his household. At his dying, “his empire had grown so large that he controlled nearly 80 percent of the country’s industrial production,” the historian Frank Moya Pons wrote in “The Dominican Republic: A National History” (2010).
While his voracious appetites earned Trujillo the nickname “The Goat,” he declared himself “Father of the New Fatherland” and used his troops to implement his will by way of terror and torture.
The sisters’ resistance efforts began with Minerva, who realized of the injustices of the Trujillo regime when she went to school in Santo Domingo, the capital. Minerva had caught the eye of Trujillo, whose advances she regularly turned down. When a celebration was thrown in his honor in 1949 in San Cristobal, close to the Mirabals’ farm, he made positive that she and her household attended.
“We were worried the dictator might offer her a drink,” Dedé wrote, “since rumors were circulating that it might contain a type of drug that would cause women to pass out in his arms.”
Minerva did dance with Trujillo and was daring sufficient to make it clear that she didn’t take care of his politics. “What if I send my followers to get you?” he threatened.
The household started leaving the occasion after that confrontation — an insult, since protocol demanded that no person go away earlier than Trujillo — prompting navy officers to detain Minerva and her father. They provided to allow them to go if Minerva met Trujillo in a lodge room; she refused. She and her father have been freed anyway, however Minerva was saved underneath surveillance.
Minerva grew to become a frontrunner of the resistance, and Patria and María Teresa quickly joined her, at the same time as they married and began households. The sisters recruited their husbands in the struggle.
In 1960, Minerva, her husband, Manolo, and different anti-Trujillo figures organized a resistance marketing campaign referred to as the 14th of June Movement, named for the date of a failed 1959 coup attempt in opposition to Trujillo by Dominican exiles in Cuba.
Trujillo arrested many of the conspirators, together with all three Mirabal sisters and their husbands; he later freed all feminine political prisoners hoping to spice up his reputation.
In 1948, Dedé married Jaime Fernandez, whom she described as “a violent and handsome man.” Their relationship lasted 34 years, 18 of which she mentioned have been good. They had three sons.
Dedé remained a supportive spectator in the struggle in opposition to Trujillo (by some accounts as a result of her husband didn’t enable her to take part). When her sisters met with different activists, she would watch their kids.
“We lived in fear,” she wrote in her memoir, “and there is nothing worse than living in fear.”
On Nov. 25, 1960, the Mirabal sisters went to go to their husbands imprisoned in Puerto Plata, accompanied by their driver, Rufino de la Cruz. He was the solely individual prepared to take them, since rumors have been rampant that Trujillo deliberate to focus on the Mirabals. The rumors proved to be appropriate. As the sisters headed house, Trujillo’s thugs stopped their automobile and killed the driver on the spot. By many accounts, the sisters have been kidnapped at gunpoint and crushed earlier than being killed. Their our bodies have been returned to the automobile, which was then pushed over a cliff.
No eulogies have been learn at the sisters’ funeral. “Who could summon the energy to speak during such a difficult time?” Dedé wrote. She needed to be pulled away from the cemetery. She wrote, “I could not stop screaming: ‘Murderers! They murdered them!’”
The martyred sisters pricked the conscience of the Dominican individuals in a method that the deaths of Trujillo’s different victims had not. “It did something to their machismo,” Bernard Diederich wrote in his e-book “Trujillo: The Death of the Dictator” (2000).
On May 30, 1961, nearly six months after the sisters’ deaths, Trujillo was ambushed and assassinated by gunmen, some of whom have been his personal associates, and his household fled the nation.
In dying, the Mirabals have been hailed as heroes of the revolution. In 1999, the United Nations designated Nov. 25, the anniversary of their homicide, as International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. Their childhood house was transformed into the museum that Dedé Mirabel headed. And the 1994 e-book by the Dominican-American novelist Julia Alvarez, “In the Time of the Butterflies,” cemented the legacy of the Mirabal sisters, together with Dedé.
“If we look at the lives of these four sisters,” Alvarez wrote in an writer’s notice, “we realize that all of them came to their courage in small incremental steps, little moments and challenges we all face every day of our lives. In some ways, we become brave, almost by accident.”
The novel was changed into a 2001 TV film of the identical identify starring Salma Hayek as Minerva and Edward James Olmos as Trujillo; one other drama about the Mirabals, “Trópico de Sangre” (2010), starred Michelle Rodriguez as Minerva.
For her half, Dedé took pains to emphasise that though Alvarez’s e-book unfold the story of her household round the world, it was a novel. She wrote her autobiography partially to counteract its mythmaking. “To those who ask me about the veracity of a situation, or about one detail or another, or about the portrayal of my husband in the novel, for example,” she wrote, “I always say that even though it was based on a real story, it is a work of fiction.”
Dedé spent her life telling the story of her sisters and elevating their six kids with the assist of her personal mom. “The responsibility for my sisters’ sons and daughters was what kept us going,” she wrote, although it was a problem to clarify how they’d misplaced their moms “without letting it affect them psychologically.”
Minerva’s daughter, Minou Tavárez Mirabal, grew as much as develop into a congressional consultant and vice international minister.
“It is a consolation to me to think that my mother, Minerva, was not wrong when she would hear warnings about how dangerous it was to stand up to Rafael Leonidas Trujillo,” she mentioned in a 2006 speech, “and would always reply with these same words: ‘If they kill me, I shall reach my arms out of the grave and I shall be stronger.’”
One of Dedé’s sons, Jaime David Fernández Mirabal, was vice chairman of the Dominican Republic from 1996 to 2000.
Dedé Mirabal died on Feb. 1, 2014. She was 88.
“I can say: I have done my duty for the homeland,” she wrote. “I can say: I have raised an honest family.”
Armando Arrieta contributed research.